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A national symbol–the 1-cent coin

The maple leaf is a proud and distinctive Canadian symbol, appearing on all Canadian coins minted between Confederation and 1935. The modern 1-cent coin features two maple leaves on the same twig. The design, created by G.E. Kruger Gray, was first used in 1937 and has remained unchanged with one exception: in 1967, a rock dove designed by renowned Canadian artist Alex Colville appeared on the reverse to celebrate Canada's Centennial. Countess Grey struck the first 1-cent coin on January 2, 1908 at the official opening of the Ottawa branch of the Royal Mint (which became the Royal Canadian Mint in 1931).

Reverse side designs  |   Technical specifications  |   Mintages

Reverse side designs

1858 - 1920
The maple leaf wreath

1858 - 1911
This 1-cent coin features the design of L.C. Wyon of the Royal Mint. It portrays maple leaves wrapped around a vine.

1911 - 1920
W.H.J. Blackmore designed this reverse of the 1-cent coin. The representation of maple leaves wrapped around a vine was kept.

1920 - 1936
The two maple leaves
This design, created by Fred Lewis, coincided with a reduction in the 1-cent coin's diameter.

1937 - 1966, 1968 - 1981, 1997 - present
The maple leaf twig (round coin)
In 1937, as part of an effort to modernize Canada's coins, G.E. Kruger-Gray created the maple leaf twig design. His initials appear on the right.

1967
The centennial 1-cent coin
Alex Colville created a special set of coin designs to commemorate the 100th anniversary of Canadian Confederation; the penny features a rock dove in flight.

1982 - 1996
The maple leaf twig (12-sided coin)
The shape of the maple leaf twig was altered to make identification easier for the visually impaired. The coin reverted to the round design in 1997.

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Technical specifications

1908 - 1920
Composition: 95.5% copper, 3% tin, 1.5% zinc
Weight (g): 5.67
Diameter (mm): 25.4
Thickness (mm): n/a

1920 - 1941
Composition: 95.5% copper, 3% tin, 1.5% zinc
Weight (g): 3.24
Diameter (mm): 19.05
Thickness (mm): 1.65

1942 - 1977
Composition: 98% copper, 0.5% tin, 1.5% zinc
Weight (g): 3.24
Diameter (mm): 19.05
Thickness (mm): 1.65

1978 - 1979
Composition:  98% copper, 1.75% tin, 0.25% zinc
Weight (g): 3.24
Diameter (mm): 19.05
Thickness (mm): 1.52

1980 - 1981
Composition:  98% copper, 1.75% tin, 0.25% zinc
Weight (g): 2.8
Diameter (mm): 19
Thickness (mm): 1.45

1982 - 1996
Composition:  98% copper, 1.75% tin, 0.25% zinc
Weight (g): 2.5
Diameter (mm): 19.1
Thickness (mm): 1.45

1997 - 1999
Composition: 98.4% zinc, 1.6% copper plating
Weight (g): 2.25
Diameter (mm): 19.05
Thickness (mm): 1.45

2000 - present*
Composition: 94% steel, 1.5% nickel, 4.5% copper plating
Weight (g): 2.35
Diameter (mm): 19.05
Thickness (mm): 1.45

*Note: Since 2000, the 1-cent coin can be produced using either the copper-plated steel or copper-plated zinc compositions.

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Mintages

1908 - 1909
1908 - 2,401,506
1909 - 3,973,339

1910 - 1919
1910 - 5,146,487
1911 - 4,663,486
1912 - 5,107,642
1913 - 5,735,405
1914 - 3,405,958
1915 - 4,932,134
1916 - 11,022,367
1917 - 11,899,254
1918 - 12,970,798
1919 - 11,279,634

1920 - 1929
1920 - 22,246,170
1921 - 7,601,627
1922 - 1,243,635
1923 - 1,019,022
1924 - 1,593,195
1925 - 1,000,622
1926 - 2,143,372
1927 - 3,553,928
1928 - 9,144,860
1929 - 12,159,840

1930 - 1939
1930 - 2,538,613
1931 - 3,842,776
1932 - 21,316,190
1933 - 12,079,310
1934 - 7,042,358
1935 - 7,526,400
1936 - 8,768,769
1937 - 10,090,231
1938 - 18,365,608
1939 - 21,600,319

1940 - 1949
1940 - 85,740,532
1941 - 56,336,011
1942 - 76,113,708
1943 - 89,111,969
1944 - 44,131,216
1945 - 77,268,591
1946 - 56,662,071
1947 - 74,949,349
1948 - 25,767,779
1949 - 33,128,933

1950 - 1959
1950 - 60,444,992
1951 - 80,430,379
1952 - 67,631,736
1953 - 67,806,016
1954 - 22,181,760
1955 - 56,403,193
1956 - 78,685,535
1957 - 100,601,792
1958 - 59,385,679
1959 - 83,615,343

1960 - 1969
1960 - 75,772,775
1961 - 139,598,404
1962 - 227,244,069
1963 - 279,076,334
1964 - 484,655,322
1965 - 304,441,082
1966 - 183,644,388
1967 - 345,140,645
1968 - 329,695,772
1969 - 335,240,929

1970 - 1979
1970 - 344,145,010
1971 - 298,228,936
1972 - 451,304,591
1973 - 457,058,489
1974 - 692,058,489
1975 - 642,618,000
1976 - 701,122,890
1977 - 453,050,666
1978 - 911,170,647
1979 - 753,942,953

1980 - 1989
1980 - 911,800,000
1981 - 1,209,468,500
1982 - 876,036,898
1983 - 975,510,000
1984 - 838,225,000
1985 - 771,772,500
1986 - 788,285,000
1987 - 774,549,000
1988 - 482,676,752
1989 - 1,066,628,200

1990 - 1999
1990 - 218,035,000
1991 - 831,001,000
1992 - 673,512,000
1993 - 808,585,000
1994 - 639,516,000
1995 - 624,983,000
1996 - 445,746,000
1997 - 549,868,000
1998 - 999,578,000
1999 - 1,089,625,000

2000 - 2009
2000 - 902,506,000
2001 - 928,434,000
2002 - 830,040,000
2003 - 748,123,000
2004 - 842,486,000
2005 - 767,425,000
2006 - 1,261,883,000
2007 - 846,420,000
2008 - 787,625,000
2009 - 455,680,000

2010 - present
2010 - 486,200,000
2011 - 662,750,000
2012 - 199,347,000

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